In a study on the illicit ecosystem of dematerialized cultural goods (PDF) and carried out by the consultancy EY (Ernst & Young), Hadopi examines the plurality of sites and services linked to commercial counterfeiting of content ( films, series, music, video games, books, sports…) and the economic models favoring their dissemination.
For Hadopi, this ecosystem " has become more complex over the years, with more and more players playing a direct or indirect role. "
The High Authority for the dissemination of works and the protection of rights on the Internet notes that the illicit ecosystem linked to dematerialized cultural goods " integrates numerous technical intermediaries, payment services, etc. who offer their services to central actors, without being solely dedicated to the world of the illicit. "
The table below summarizes the current situation as mapped by Hadopi:
For this ecosystem, Hadopi underlines the role of downstream services which are used ("hijacked") by pirate internet users in order to circumvent anti-piracy measures or to gain easier access to counterfeit works.
The VPN (virtual private network) would thus be used by 5% of users among illicit consumers (in France). Usage is much more intimate (0.2%) for the seedbox and virtual private server concerning P2P networks, with for example the installation of a BitTorrent client which downloads and shares content instead of the Internet user, thus masking its IP address.
In order to override the limits of content hosts and benefit from premium quality, the premium linker would be used by 6% of users who are illegal consumers. However, it is a practice, mainly affecting direct download, which would tend to decrease.